Saturday, December 8, 2007

BIWA - loquats

Tetiba teringin pulak tekak ni nak mengunyah.. teringat ada satu buah yang saya tak miss beli bila tiba musimnya... buah 'biwa'. Sedapnya kalau dapat makan biwa.... Susah nak digambarkan betapa sedapnya buah ni. Buahnya berbulu pendek (kulitnya rasa macam baldu bila disentuh) dan rasanya manis macam rambutan, tapi texturenya lebih kepada buah peach atau plum.

Sedikit info dan photo berkenaan buah 'biwa'. Petikan:

Semoga ada manafaatnya.



Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) - Loquat

Biwa in fruit

Fruit on the tree (2000-07-04)


I suppose I was aware of the existence of this fruit, but I'd never noticed the tree until sometime in June (2000), when on the way to the station I passed a group of people systematically stripping the tree in front of their house of its plentiful fruit. They simply shook branches violently, and caught as much as they could. So eventually I got round to taking a few photos, and wrote an entry for jeKai. Here's my slightly drier "dictionary style"...

The fruit (a one-yen coin is 2 cm in diameter)

This tree is native to southeastern China and possibly the southern end of Japan, but it is widely cultivated. The tree is evergreen, with distinctly ribbed leaves, and grows to 5 or 10 metres high. The fruit, also easily available in Japanese supermarkets, is small (3 or 4 cm long), pale tangerine-coloured, and pear-shaped, sometimes with a single almost spherical stone in the centre (1 cm dia.), other times with two or three. The taste is quite delicate, but distinctive, with a pleasant tartness. (The kernels are said to be poisonous if cracked open and eaten in large quantities.)

As usual, the only really reliable non-local way to identify a plant is by its Latin name. The "Thunb." given at the end, by the way, is after Thunberg, though the plant was first described to the West by his predecessor Kaempfer. In English these are most commonly known as "loquats", which is mercifully less of a mouthful than "Eriobotrya". Other names I found include "Japanese medlar" and "Japanese plum", but "plum" in particular is usually used for ume, which in turn can also be called "Japanese apricot", which is odd, since I'd say that the biwa is much more similar to an apricot than ume. Anyway, call it a loquat - this name comes from Cantonese, southern Chinese, from the tree's source. According to my Japanese-Chinese dictionary (I'm not a Chinese speaker), the Mandarin name is pipa, with the same characters as the Japanese name, whereas the Cantonese luh kwat is written with entirely different characters.

"A pile of profiteroles"


A fruit of wide appeal, the loquat, Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., (syn. Mespilus japonicus Thunb.), of the rose family, Rosaceae, has been called Japan, or Japanese, plum and Japanese medlar. To the Italians, it is nespola giapponese; to French-speaking people, it is néflier du Japon, or bibassier. In the German language, it is japanische mispel, or wollmispel; in Spanish, nispero, nispero japonés, or nispero del Japón; in Portuguese, ameixa amarella, or ameixa do Japao.

Plate XI: LOQUAT, Eriobotrya japonica

A tree of moderate size, the loquat may reach 20 to 30 ft (6-9 in), has a rounded crown, short trunk, and woolly new twigs. The evergreen leaves, mostly whorled at the branch tips, are elliptical-lanceolate to obovate lanceolate, 5 to 12 in (12.5-30 cm) long and 3 to 4 in (7.5-10 cm) wide; dark-green and glossy on the upper surface, whitish-or rusty-hairy beneath, thick, stiff, with conspicuous parallel, oblique veins, each usually terminating at the margin in a short, prickly point. Sweetly fragrant flowers, borne in rusty-hairy, terminal panicles of 30 to 100 blooms, are white, 5-petalled, 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) wide. The fruits, in clusters of 4 to 30, are oval, rounded or pear-shaped, 1 to 2 in (2.5-5 cm) long, with smooth or downy, yellow to orange, sometimes red-blushed, skin, and white, yellow or orange, succulent pulp, of sweet to subacid or acid flavor. There may be 1 to 10 seeds, though, ordinarily, only 3 to 5, dark-brown or light-brown, angular -ellipsoid, about 5/8 in (1.5 cm) long and 5/16 in (8 mm) thick.

Origin and Distribution

The loquat is indigenous to southeastern China and possibly southern Japan, though it may have been introduced into Japan in very early times. It is said to have been cultivated in Japan for over 1, 000 years. The western world first learned of it from the botanist Kaempfer in 1690. Thunberg, who saw it in Japan in 1712, provided a more elaborate description. It was planted in the National Gardens, Paris, in 1784 and plants were taken from Canton, China, to the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, England, in 1787. Soon, the tree was grown on the Riviera and in Malta and French North Africa (Algeria) and the Near East and fruits were appearing on local markets. In 1818, excellent fruits were being produced in hothouses in England. The tree can be grown outdoors in the warmest locations of southern England.

Cultivation spread to India and southeast Asia, the medium altitudes of the East Indies, and Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Chinese immigrants are assumed to have carried the loquat to Hawaii.

In the New World, it is cultivated from northern South America, Central America and Mexico to California: also, since 1867, in southern Florida and northward to the Carolinas, though it does not fruit north of Jacksonville. It was quite common as a small-fruited ornamental in California gardens in the late 1870's. The horticulturist, C.P. Taft, began seedling selection and distributed several superior types before the turn of the century, but further development was slow. Dwarfing on quince root-stocks has encouraged expansion of loquat cultivation in Israel since 1960. In the northern United States and Europe, the tree is grown in greenhouses as an ornamental, especially var. variegata with white and pale-green splashes on the leaves.

In India and many other areas, the tree has become naturalized, as it volunteers readily from seed. Japan is the leading producer of loquats, the annual crop amounting to 17,000 tons. Brazil has 150,000 loquat trees in the State of Sao Paulo.


The loquat has been the subject of much horticultural improvement, increasing the size and quality of the fruit. There are said to be over 800 varieties in the Orient. T. Ikeda catalogued 46 as more or less important in Japan; over 15 have originated in Algeria through the work of L. Trabut; C.P. Taft selected and introduced at least 8 into cultivation in California; 5 or 6 have been selected in Italy; only 1 in Florida. A number of widely planted, named cultivars have been classed as either "Chinese" or "Japanese". In the Chinese group, the trees have slender leaves, the fruit is pear-shaped or nearly round with thick, orange skin and dark-orange flesh, not very juicy, subacid, but of distinct flavor. The seeds are small and numerous. The harvesting period is midseason to late and the fruits are of good keeping quality.

In the Japanese group, the tree has broad leaves, the fruit is pear-shaped or long-oval, the skin is usually pale-yellow, the flesh whitish, very juicy, acid but otherwise not very distinct in flavor. The seeds are large and there may be just a few or only one. The harvesting period is early to midseason. Keeping quality is fair to poor.

In Egypt, most loquats are of Lebanese origin. Egyptian horticulturists have selected from seedlings of 'Premier' 2 superior clones, 'Golden Ziad' and 'Maamora Golden Yellow' and have vegetatively propagated them on quince rootstocks for commercial distribution.

Some of the oldtime selections, 'Advance', 'Champagne', 'Premier', 'Success' and 'Tanaka' are no longer popular in California but are performing well in other areas. In Florida, 'Oliver' has always been the most common cultivar, though a number of others–'Advance', 'Champagne', 'Early Red', 'Pineapple', 'Premier', 'Tanaka' and 'Thales' have been more or less successful.

In the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2 cultivars are raised on a commercial scale–'Precoce de Itaquera' and 'Mizuho'. In the southernmost state of the U.S.S.R., Georgia, several loquat cultivars are grown, including 'Champagne', 'Comune', 'Grossa de Sicilia', 'Premier', 'Tanaka', and 'Thales'.

The following are the cultivars most commonly described:

'Advance' (Japanese group)–A seedling selected by C. P. Taft in California in 1897. Fruit is borne in large clusters; pear-shaped to elliptic-round; of medium to large size; skin downy, yellow, thick and tough; flesh thick, cream-colored, juicy, subacid, of excellent flavor. Seeds of medium size, may be as many as 4 or 5; average is 3.20 per fruit. A late cultivar though it ripens earlier than 'Champagne' which it other-wise closely resembles. Tree is a natural dwarf, to a little over 5 ft (1.58 m); is highly resistant to pear blight. Self-infertile; a good pollinator for other cultivars. It is interplanted with 'Golden Yellow' and 'Pale Yellow' in India.

'Ahdar' (Lebanese; grown in India)–oval, of medium size; greenish-yellow with white flesh; bears moderately; late-ripening; of poor keeping quality.

'Ahmar' (Lebanese; grown in India)–pear-shaped, large, with reddish-orange skin; yellow flesh, firm, juicy; early ripening; of good keeping quality. A leading cultivar in Lebanon. Very precocious. Self-infertile.

'Akko 1' or 'Acco 1' (of Japanese origin)–long-oval to pear-shaped, 20 to 25 g in weight; skin orange with a little russeting, thick; flesh yellow, juicy, of average flavor, and there are 3 or 4 seeds. Ripens in midseason, beginning in mid-April in Israel where it constitutes 10 to 20% of commercial plantings. Precocious and a good bearer; sets 20 to 30 fruits per cluster and requires drastic thinning, leaving about 6 fruits. Fruit is subject to sunburn. Stands harvesting and shipping well, keeps in good condition less than 2 weeks under refrigeration. This cultivar is self-fertile.

'Akko 13' or 'Acco 13' (of Japanese origin)–pear-shaped, 20 to 25 g in weight; dark-orange, with no russeting; flesh yellow, juicy, with acid, agreeable flavor; 2 or 3 seeds. Bears from end of March through April in Israel, regularly and abundantly; constitutes 50 to 70% of commercial plantings in Israel; of good handling and keeping quality; stands transportation for 2 weeks at 32ºF (O.OºC). Fruit is subject to sunburn. Needs cross-pollination.

'Asfar' (Lebanese, grown in India)–oval, smaller than 'Ahmar', with yellow skin and flesh, very juicy, of superior flavor, but very perishable.

'Blush' ('Red Blush') -Resembles 'Advance' but is very large. Was selected by C.P. Taft as being immune to blight, but was abandoned after 'Advance' proved to be highly blight-resistant.

'Champagne' (Japanese), often misidentified as 'Early Red'. Selected and introduced into cultivation in California by C. P. Taft around 1908. Elongated pear-shaped, often oblique; small to large (depending on where it is grown); skin pale-golden to deep-yellow, thick, tough, astringent; flesh white or yellow, soft, juicy, mild and subacid to sweet; of excellent flavor. There are 3 to 5 seeds. Midseason to late. Prolific; fruits borne in large clusters. Perishable; good for preserving. Tree has long, narrow, pointed leaves; is self -infertile.

'Early Red' (Japanese); originated by Taft in 1909. Obliquely pear-shaped; medium-large; skin orange-red with white dots, thick, tough, acid; flesh orange, very juicy, sweet, of fair to excellent flavor; has 2 or 3 seeds. Earliest in season, often appearing on California markets at the end of January or in the beginning of February. Borne in compact clusters.

'Eulalia' (a seedling of 'Advance' selected by M. Payan in California in 1905)–pear-shaped to obovate -pear-shaped; skin faintly downy, orange-yellow with red blush and pale gray dots, thick, tough; flesh pinkish or orange, melting, soft, very juicy; subacid in flavor. Seeds medium in size, numerous. Early in season.

'Fire Ball' (popular in India)–ovate to ovate-elliptic; small, with yellow, thick skin; flesh white to straw-colored, thick, crisp, smooth, of mild, subacid flavor. Seeds are large: average 2.90 per fruit. Midseason. Tree is a natural dwarf to 9.5 ft (2.84 in).

'Glenorie Superb' (grown in Western Australia)–round, large, dark-orange with yellow flesh which is juicy and sweet. Somewhat late in season. Inclined to bruise during harvesting.

'Golden Red' (grown in California)–flesh pale-orange, medium-thick, smooth, melting, of subacid, agreeable taste; few seeded. Midseason.

'Golden Yellow' (grown in India)–ovate-elliptic; of medium size; skin orange-yellow; flesh pale-orange, medium-thick, soft, smooth, with subacid, mild flavor. Seeds of medium size; average 4.83 per fruit.

'Golden Ziad' (#2-6) (grown in Egypt)–dark-yellow to light-orange; up to 1 1/2 in (3.96 cm) long; average number of seeds, 2.93-3.83 per fruit. Early. High-Yielding; 50 lbs (23.5 kg) per tree.

'Herd's Mammoth' (grown in Western Australia)–long and slightly tapering at the stem end; large; yellow to orange with white to cream-colored flesh. Ripens earlier than 'Victory'. Subject to black spot; not often planted.

'Improved Golden Yellow' (grown in India)–ovate-elliptic; skin orange-yellow; flesh orange-yellow, thick, crisp, smooth, with subacid to sweet, mild flavor. Seeds large; average 3.06 per fruit. Tree to 15 ft (4.49 in). Early.

'Improved Pale Yellow' (grown in India)–flesh pale-orange or cream-colored, firm or soft, smooth, of subacid, pleasant flavor, with medium number of seeds. Midseason.

'Kusunoki' (grown in Japan)–small; early.

'Large Agra' (grown in India)–ovate-round; of medium size; skin deep-yellow; flesh yellow or pale-orange, medium thick, smooth, firm, of pleasant flavor, fairly sweet. Seeds small; average 5.10 per fruit. Midseason. Tree a medium-dwarf–to 9 1/2 ft (2.83 in).

'Large Round' (grown in India)–ovate-round; of medium size; yellow of skin with cream-colored flesh, firm, coarse, subacid to sweet, mild. Seeds of medium size; average 4.80 per fruit. Midseason. Tree fairly tall–13 ft. (3.92 in).

'Maamora Golden Yellow' (#7-9) (grown in Egypt)–dark-yellow to light-orange; to 1 1/2 in (3.91 cm long); seeds average 2.40 to 4.03 per fruit; late in season. High-yielding–44 lbs (20 kg) per tree.

'Mammoth' (grown in Australia; mentioned in California in 1889)–flesh orange, medium thick, granular, coarse, of subacid, agreeable flavor. Midseason.

'Matchless' (grown in India) pear shaped; flesh medium-thick, pale-orange, smooth, soft, of mild, subacid flavor; medium number of seeds. Midseason.

'Mizuho' (grown in Japan)–rounded-oval; extra large (70-120 g); juicy, with agreeable, slightly acid though also sweet flavor, and with 5 or more seeds. Subject to fruit spots and sunburn.

'Mogi' (grown in Japan)–elliptical, light-yellow; small (40-50 g); Ripens in early spring. Tree is cold sensitive. Self-fertile. Constitutes 60% of the Japanese crop of loquats.

'Obusa' (a hybrid of 'Tanaka' and 'Kusonoki', developed and grown in Japan)–deep yellow, very large (80-100 g); of medium flavor; good keeping and shipping quality. Ripens earlier than Tanaka. Tree bears regularly and is resistant to insects and diseases, but fruit is subject to sunburn (purple stains on skin).

'Oliver' ('Olivier' X 'Tanaka'). In the past was considered the best loquat for southern Florida.

'Pale Yellow' (grown in India)–oblique -elliptic to round; light yellow, large; flesh white or cream-colored, thin, smooth, melting, of subacid to sweet flavor; seeds large; average 4.8 per fruit. Early. Tree is fairly tall–to 13 ft (4 in).

'Pineapple' (developed and introduced into cultivation in California by Taft in 1899)–round or sometimes pear-shaped; light-yellow with white flesh. Of good quality but inferior to 'Champagne'. Abandoned in California because of the weakness of the tree.

'Precoce de Itaquera' (erroneously called 'Tanaka'; grown in Brazil; believed to be a local selection of 'Mogi')–oval-pear-shaped; deep-orange; very small (25.3-29.1 g). Flesh is firm and acid-sweet. Very productive: 1,500 to 2,000 fruits per tree annually. Subject to sunburn (purple stains on skin) but less so than 'Mizuho'. Was for a long time the leading cultivar in the State of Sao Paulo but has lost ground to 'Mizuho' even though a pear-shaped fruit is preferred by consumers, because it does not keep or ship as well as the 'Mizuho', which now makes up 65% of the plantings and 'Precoce de Itaquera' 35%.

'Premier' (originated by Taft in California in 1899)–oval to oblong-pear-shaped; large; skin downy, orange-yellow to salmon-orange with large white dots; medium-thick, tough; flesh whitish, melting, juicy, subacid, of agreeable flavor; seeds average 4 or 5 per fruit. Late. Good for dooryards. Does not ship well, nor keep well.

'Safeda' (grown in India)–flesh is cream-colored, thick, smooth and melting, of subacid, excellent flavor; contains medium number of seeds. Early to midseason.

'Saint Michel' (unclassified; grown in Israel)–round but has the thin skin and white flesh of the Japanese group. Ripens late. Self-infertile.

'Swell's Enormity' (grown in Western Australia)–pear-shaped, very large; deep apricot-colored externally with flesh of the same color. Acid if harvested too early. Very late in season. Subject to sunburn in hot weather.

'Tanaka' (Chinese group; a seedling originated in Japan; young trees introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1902; widely grown)–ovoid or round; large (70-80 g) in Japan; in some other areas small (30 g); skin orange or orange-yellow; flesh brownish-orange, medium thick, coarse, firm, juicy, sweet or subacid, of excellent taste. There may be 2 to 4 seeds; average 2.70 per fruit. Ripens late–beginning the first of May, which is too late for California because of susceptibility to sunburn. The tree is of medium size-nearly 10 ft (2.98 m); precocious; bears regularly; is self-fertile to a degree. Constitutes 10% of commercial crop in Israel; 35% of the crop in Japan. Highly cold-tolerant.

'Thales', also known as 'Gold Nugget' and 'Placentia', (Chinese group; very similar to 'Tanaka' and possibly a clone. Introduced from Japan and planted at Placentia, California, between 1880 and 1900)–oblong-obovate to round, large, skin orange-yellow with numerous white dots, tough; flesh, orange, thick, firm, juicy, of sweet, apricot-like flavor. There are 2 to 4 seeds. Late in season. Fruits borne only a few to a cluster; keep and ship well. Self-fertile.

'Thames Pride' (grown in India)–ovate-elliptic, of medium size or sometimes large; pale-orange or deep-yellow with cream colored or pale-orange, juicy, coarse, somewhat granular flesh of subacid flavor; moderately seedy; average 3.20 seeds per fruit. Early in season. Tree tall, to 13 1/2 ft (4.19 m). Bears heavily. This cultivar is grown and canned commercially.

'Tsrifin 8' (grown in Israel)–rounded pear-shaped; 25 to 30 g in weight; yellow-orange with some russeting. Of excellent quality with good acid and sugar content. Stands handling. shipping and storage well. Late–mid-April to mid-May. Precocious, bears regularly and abundantly but is subject to sunburn. Constitutes 10% of Israeli plantings.

'Victor' (originated by C.P. Taft in 1899)–oblong-pear-shaped; large; skin deep-yellow, medium-thick, tough. Flesh whitish, translucent, melting, very juicy, of sweet, mild flavor. There may be 3 to 5 seeds. Very late; too late for California. Good for canning.

'Victory' (the most popular cultivar in West Australia)–oval, large, yellow to orange, becoming amber on the sunny side. Flesh is white to cream-colored, juicy, sweet. Midseason to occasionally early.

'Wolfe', (S.E.S. #4) (a seedling of 'Advance' selected and named at the Agricultural Research and Education Center of the University of Florida in Homestead, and released in 1966)–obovoid to slightly pear-shaped; 1 3/4 to 2 in (4.5-5 cm) long and 1 to 1 1/4 in (2.5-3.2 cm) wide; yellow with fairly thick skin and pale-yellow, thick, firm, juicy flesh of excellent flavor, acid but also sweet when tree-ripe; has 1 to 5 seeds (usually 1 to 3). Tree reaches 25 ft (7.5 in) and bears well nearly every year,


The loquat is normally pollinated by bees. Some cultivars such as 'Golden Yellow' are not self-fertile. 'Pale Yellow', 'Advance', and 'Tanaka' are partially self-fertile. In India, it has been observed that cross-pollination generally results in 10-17 % increased production over self-pollination. 'Tanaka' pollinated by 'Pale Yellow' has a lower yield than when self-pollinated, indicating a degree of cross-incompatibility. Whereas, when pollinated by 'Advance', the normal yield of 'Tanaka' is nearly doubled.

When cross-pollinating for the purpose of hybridizing, only flowers of the second flush should be used, as early and late flushes have abnormal stamens, very little viable pollen, and result in poor setting and undersized fruits.


The loquat is adapted to a subtropical to mild-temperate climate. In China it grows naturally at altitudes between 3,000 and 7,000 ft (914-2,100 m). In India, it grows at all levels up to 5, 000 ft (1,500 m). In Guatemala, the tree thrives and fruits well at elevations between 3,000 and 6,900 ft (900-1,200 m), but bears little or not at all at lower levels.

Well-established trees can tolerate a drop in temperature to 12º F (-11.11º C). In Japan, the killing temperature for the flower bud is 19.4º F (7º C); for the mature flower, 26.6º F (-3º C). At 25º F (-3.89º C), the seed is killed, causing the fruit to fall.

Loquats are grown on hillsides in Japan to have the benefit of good air flow. Extreme summer heat is detrimental to the crop, and dry, hot winds cause leaf scorch. Where the climate is too cool or excessively warm and moist, the tree is grown as an ornamental but will not bear fruit.


The tree grows well on a variety of soils of moderate fertility, from light sandy loam to heavy clay and even oolitic limestone, but needs good drainage.


Generally, seeds are used for propagation only when the tree is grown for ornamental purposes or for use as rootstock. Loquat seedlings are preferred over apple, pear, quince or pyracantha rootstocks under most conditions. Quince and pyracantha may cause extreme dwarfing-to less than 8 ft (2.5 in). Quince rootstock tolerates heavier and wetter soils than loquat but is apt to put out numerous suckers. Loquat seeds remain viable for 6 months if stored in partly sealed glass jars under high humidity at room temperature, but the best temperature for storage is 40º F (5º C). They are washed and planted in flats or pots soon after removal from the fruit and the seedlings are transplanted when 6 to 7 in (15-17.5 cm) high to nursery rows. When the stem is 1/2 in (1.25 cm) thick at the base, the seedlings are ready to be top-worked. In India, inarching is commonly practiced but budding and grafting are more popular in most other areas. Shield-budding, using 3-month-old scions, is successful. Cleft-grafting has been a common practice in Florida. Veneer-grafting in April has proved to be a superior method in Pakistan. Cuttings are not easy to root. Air-layering may be only 20% successful, though 80 to 100% of the layers root in 6 weeks if treated with 3% NAA (2-naphthoxyacetic acid).

Trees that are vegetatively propagated will begin to bear fruit in 5 years or less, as compared to 8 to 10 years in seedling trees. Old seedling trees can be converted by cutting back severely and inserting budwood of a preferred cultivar.


The rainy season is best for planting loquats. When planted on rich soil, normal size trees should be set 25 to 30 ft (7.5-9 m) apart, allowing about 83 trees per acre (200 per ha). In Brazil, a spacing of 23 x 23 ft (7x7 m) is recommended on flat land, 26 x 20 ft (8x6 m) or 26 x 16.5 ft (8x5 m) on slopes. Dwarf trees are spaced at 13 x 6.5 ft (4x2 m) in Japan and this may allow 208 per acre (500 per ha). The tree is a heavy feeder. For good fruit production the trees require ample fertilization and irrigation. In the tropics, animal manure is often used. A good formula for applications of chemical fertilizer is: 1 lb (.45 kg) 6-6-6 NPK three times a year during the period of active growth for each tree 8 to 10 ft in height. The trees should be watered at the swelling of blossoms and 2 to 3 waterings should be given during harvest-time. Thinning of flowers and young fruits in the cluster, or the clipping off of the tip of the cluster, or of entire clusters of flowers and fruits, is sometimes done to enhance fruit size. This is carefully done by hand in Japan. With the 'Tanaka' cultivar, the Japanese leave only one fruit per cluster; with the 'Mogi', two. In Taiwan, thinning is done by spraying with NAA when the flowers are fully open.

In Taiwan, because of the hazard of strong typhoons, the loquat is grown as a mini-dwarf no more than 3 ft (0.9 m) high and wide, and branch tips may be tied to the ground because branches kept at a 451 angle flower heavily. Spraying with gibberellic acid (60 ppm) at full bloom enhances fruit set and increases fruit size and weight, total reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content, reduces fruit drop, number of seeds, and acidity. Spraying the same at 300 ppm results in small, seedless fruits. There should be judicious pruning after harvest, otherwise terminal shoots become too numerous and cause a decline in vigor which may result in biennial bearing. In Brazil, the clusters are bagged to eliminate sunburn (purple staining of the skin) to which both of the leading cultivars are susceptible.

Because of the shallow root system of the loquat, great care must be taken in mechanical cultivation not to damage the roots. The growing of dwarf trees greatly reduces the labor of flower-and fruit-thinning, bagging, and, later, harvesting and pruning.


Generally, the loquat tree blooms in the fall and fruits in early spring. However, in tropical climates, the tree may flower 2 or 3 times a year beginning in July and set fruit mainly from the second flowering. In Florida, ripening begins in February; in California, usually in April; in Israel, the crop ripens from March to May. In Brazil, the harvesting extends from May to October.


Loquats reach maturity in 90 days from full flower opening. Determination of ripeness is not easy, but it is important because unripe fruits are excessively acid. Full development of color for each cultivar is the best guide.

The fruits are difficult to harvest because of the thick, tough stalk on each fruit which does not separate readily from the cluster, and the fruits must be picked with stalk attached to avoid tearing the skin. Clusters are cut from the branch with a sharp knife or with clippers. Whole clusters are not particularly attractive on the market, therefore the individual fruits are clipped from the cluster, the stalk is detached from each fruit and the fruits are graded for size and color to provide uniform packs. Great care is taken to avoid blemishes.

Major Japanese growers have monorail systems for conveying the picked fruits and equipment from their hillside plantations.


Dwarf loquats in Israel have produced 7 tons/ha at 3 years of age, 25 tons/ha at 7 years. Normal size trees in Brazil are expected to bear 110 lbs (50 kg) per tree, 4.17 tons per acre (10 tons/ha) when planted at a rate of 83 trees per acre (200 trees/ha). The 'Wolfe' cultivar in southern Florida has borne 100 lbs (45 kg) per tree at 5 years of age; 300 lbs (136 kg) when 15 to 20 years old.

Keeping Quality

Loquats generally will keep for 10 days at ordinary temperatures, and for 60 days in cool storage. After removal from storage, the shelf-life may be only 3 days. Treatment with the fungicide, benomyl, makes it possible to maintain loquats for one month at 60º F (15.56º C) with a minimum of decay. Other fungicides tried have proved much less effective. Cold storage of loquats in polyethylene bags alters the flavor of the fruit, promotes internal browning and the development of fungi.

Pests and Diseases

In Japan, scale insects, aphids, fruit flies and birds damage the fruits and may necessitate covering the clusters with cloth or paper bags. Laborers can attach 1,000 to 1,500 bags per day. An acre may require 62,500 bags (150,000/ha). A pole with a hook at the tip is employed to bring each branch within reach. The process is labor intensive. In Israel, wire netting is placed over trees to protect the crop from birds.

The Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa) has ruined the dooryard loquat crop for the past several years in Florida. The fruit flies, A. striata and A. serpentina, require control in Venezuela, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, in Tunisia. Another fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, is the major pest in India, forces the harvesting of mature fruits while they are still too hard to be penetrated, and the complete removal of all immature fruits at the same time so that they will not remain as hosts. The soil around the base of the tree must be plowed up and treated to kill the pupae. The second most important predator is the bark-eating caterpillar, Indarbela quadrinotata.

Minor pests include leaf-eating chafer beetles, A doretus duvauceli, A. lasiopygus, A. horticola and A. versutus; gray weevils, Myllocerus lactivirens and M. discolor which attack the margins of the leaves. The scale insects, Coccus viridis, Eulecanium coryli, Parlatoria oleae, P. pseudopyri, Pulvinaria Psidii and Saissetia hemisphaerica suck the sap from loquat leaves and branches. Carpenter bees, Megochile anthracina, cut holes in the leaves and take the tissue to line their mud nests. Aphids (Aphis malvae) suck sap from twigs and shoots and sooty mold develops on the honeydew which they excrete. Flowers are attacked by thrips (Heliothrips sp.). The caterpillars of the anar butterfly, Virachola isocrates, bore into the fruits and lay eggs on the fruits, flowers and leaves. In New Zealand, a leaf-roller caterpillar eats into the buds and flowers. In California, the main pests of loquat are the codlin moth (Cydia pomonella), the green apple aphis (Aphis pomi) and scales.

The roots of loquat trees in India are preyed on by nematodes–Criconemoides xenophax, Helicotylenchus spp., Hemicriconemoides communis, Haplolaimus spp. and Xiphinema insigne.


Pear blight (Bacillus amylovorus) is the major enemy of the loquat in California and has killed many trees. Phytophthora is responsible for crown rot and Pseudomonas eriobotryae causes cankers in California. Scab may occur on the bark of the trunk and larger branches. A serious disease is collar rot and root rot caused by Diplodia natalensis. D. eriobotrya sometimes affects the leaves. The parasitic fungus, Monochaetia indica, induces leaf spot in India. Leaf spot is also caused by the soil-inhabiting fungus Schlerotium rolfsii. Spilocaeae eriobotryae causes black spot on fruits and leaves in Italy and South Western Australia. Fleck, caused by the fungus Fabraea maculata is recognized by red-brown spots with whitish centers on leaves, shoots and fruit. In Florida, leaf spot may result from infection by Pestalotia sp. The foliage of young plants in Brazilian nurseries is damaged by the fungus Entomosporium maculatum. Other fungus problems of the loquat include stem-brown disease caused by Batryosphaeria dothidee; die-back from Macrophoma sp., withertip from Collectotrichum gloeosporioides, and twig blight and canker from Cytospora chrysospernw. Post-harvest fruit rot is the result of infection by Diplodia natalensis, Pestalotia sp. or Aspergillus niger.

Peeled, seeded loquats canned in sirup
Fig. 29: Peeled, seeded loquats (Eriobotrya japonica) canned in sirup in Taiwan.

Sunburn, "purple spot", is responsible for much fruit loss in hot regions with long summers. Chemical sprays have been employed to hasten fruit maturity to avoid sunburn. Various types of bags have been tried in Brazil to protect the fruit from this blemish. The best are 2- and 3-ply newspaper bags.

Food Uses

The skin of the loquat is easily removed. Peeled and seeded fruits are eaten fresh, sometimes combined with sliced banana, orange sections and grated coconut. They are delicious simply stewed with a little sugar added. The fruits are also used in gelatin desserts or as pie-filling, or are chopped and cooked as a sauce. Loquats canned in sirup are exported from Taiwan. Some people prepare spiced loquats (with cloves, cinnamon, lemon and vinegar) in glass jars. The fruit is also made into jam and, when slightly underripe, has enough pectin to make jelly. The jelly was formerly manufactured commercially in California on a small scale.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Calories 168
Protein 1.4 g
Fat 0.7 g
Carbohydrates 43.3 g
Calcium 70 mg
Phosphorus 126 mg
Iron 1.4 mg
Potassium 1,216 mg
Vitamin A 2,340 I.U.
Ascorbic Acid 3 mg
*Analyses reported by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture.

The fruit contains laevulose, sucrose and malic acid and lesser amounts of citric, tartaric and succinic acid. The pulp contains the carotenoids B-carotene (33%); y-carotene (6%); cryptoxanthin (22%), lutein, violaxanthin, neoxanthin (3-4% each). The peel is 5 times richer than the pulp in carotenoids which are similar to those in apricots.


A 5-year-old girl in Florida ate 4 unripe loquats, fell asleep and was difficult to awaken and seemed dazed. After about 2 hours, she was back to normal. There have been instances of poisoning in poultry from ingestion of loquat seeds. The seeds contain amygdalin (which is converted into HCN); also the lipids, sterol, b-sitosterol, triglyceride, sterolester, diglyceride and compound lipids; and fatty acids, mainly linoleic, palmitic, linolenic and oleic. There is amygdalin also in the fruit peel. The leaves possess a mixture of triterpenes, also tannin, vitamin B and ascorbic acid; in addition, there are traces of arsenic. Young leaves contain saponin. Some individuals suffer headache when too close to a loquat tree in bloom, The emanation from the flowers is sweet and penetrating.

Other Uses

Wood: The wood is pink, hard, close-grained, medium-heavy. It has been used instead of pear wood in making rulers and other drawing instruments.

Animal feed: The young branches have been lopped for fodder.

Perfume: In the 1950's, the flowers attracted the interest of the perfume industry in France and Spain and some experimental work was done in extraction of the essential oil from the flowers or leaves. The product was appealing but the yield was very small.

Medicinal Uses: The fruit is said to act as a sedative and is eaten to halt vomiting and thirst.

The flowers are regarded as having expectorant properties. An infusion of the leaves, or the dried, powdered leaves, may be taken to relieve diarrhea and depression and to counteract intoxication from consumption of alcoholic beverages. Leaf poultices are applied on swellings.

Friday, November 30, 2007

Nampaknya ada yang tidak bersetuju dengan posting saya di IbuGroup.

Puncanya saya komen, nafkah terletak di bahu suami. Jika suami mampu hantar isteri ke slimming center, apa salahnya. Isteri pula jika sedar suami tak mampu, janganlah meminta-minta... Saya setuju dengan kenyataan "Duit i, i punya, duit u pun I Punya" ... sebab nafkah memang terletak pada suami dan sesungguhnya tiada hak ke atas duit isteri. TAPI, adalah satu bonus jika isteri redha dan sudi berkongsi duit dengan suami....

Saya nasihatkan dia, cuba2lah semak balik buku kursus kahwin... kalau tak jumpa, usahakanlah cari info bab2 nafkah...


Saya sendiri masih menuntut bab-bab ni dari macam-macam sumber. Kalau dulu saya tak kisah dan tak berkira tentang nafkah, tetapi sekarang saya sedar hak saya senagai seorang isteri. True, I'm an independent person, unfortunately just the sake of my +ve attitude, I have contribute this lack of 'nafkah' unawareness, towards my husband!!!

I'm the MAIN bread winner of the family for the past few years. (I know I'm not alone out there, saya selalu baca artikel yg Pn Rohimah forward sedikit masa dulu, dan saya salute dia!) Until now I still respect my husband, but these few months I realized people should not take advantage on me, not even my husband. Sebelum lemak di perut menebal, saya ingatkan suami akan tanggungjawap dia and of course I support him from behind. Untuk apa itu semua? Tak lain tak bukan tujuannya supaya kami bahagia dan hidup dengan rukun dan damai.

Ada sesetengah suami, saya tak kata semua, ya... dapat isteri yang bekerja or bergaji lebih, lupa or buat-buat lupa menunaikan hak isteri.
Yelah, isteri dah berduit sendiri, pada dia tak perlu diberi duit. Salah tu.... Perlu diingatkan walaupun isteri bekerja, suami tetap wajib beri nafkah pada isteri, walau cuma RM50 sebulan (untuk kegunaan isteri, bukan untuk beli barang dapur, ya...). Isteri berhak menuntutnya nafkah zahir ini, dan jika suami ingkar, isteri boleh mengadu atau buat laporan... (bukan utk bercerai, ya.... tapi mengadu yang suami gagal beri nafkah pada isteri). Alhamdulillah, saya masih belum sampai ke tahap bab-bab mengadu nih...

Suami juga tiada hak atas duit isteri. Jika dia menggunakan duit isteri tanpa izinnya (atau tanpa rela), HARAM hukumnya. Kalau masa berbelanja barangan dapur atau keperluan lain, jika suami ckp "guna duit awak dululah, nanti abang ganti.".... suami WAJIB ganti sebab itu dah jatuh hutang, unless si isteri menghalalkan. Jangan pandang remeh soal nafkah, kerana ia melibatkan dosa pahala.

Hidup suami isteri kena ada give & take... Tapi saya perhati kebanyakkan kepincangan rumahtangga berpunca dari soal nafkah zahir & batin. Kenalah ingat, jika isteri gunakan duitnya untuk perbelanjaan keluarga, isteri itu dapat pahala sedekah, tapi tidaklah bermakna suami boleh lepas tangan kerana nafkah zahir TETAP tanggungjawab suami.

Saya sedar, sesungguhnya tanggungjawab suami amat berat, sebab itulah saya saling ingat-mengingatkan. Jika suami gagal menunaikan nafkah dan jika terdetik di dalam hati yang saya tidak redha dengan apa yang berlaku, automatically dah jatuh berdosa. Sebagai isteri yg diizinkan bekerja, saya bantulah apa yang patut untuk meringankan beban suami.

Saya menulis supaya isteri-isteri di luar sana sedar akan HAK-HAK isteri dalam perundangan ISLAM & PERKAHWINAN. Memang ramai isteri kurang sedar akan hak-hak mereka, sebab dulu saya pun jahil, tak tahu.

Kewajipan suami memberi nafkah kepada isteri ini berdasarkan perintah Allah yang terkandung dalam al-Quran dan al-Sunnah. Allah berfirman yang bermaksud: “Dan kewajipan bapa pula ialah memberi makan dan pakaian kepada ibu itu menurut cara yang sepatutnya. Tidaklah diberatkan seseorang melainkan menurut kemampuannya.” (Surah al-Baqarah, ayat 233)

Firman Allah yang bermaksud: “Hendaklah orang yang mampu memberi nafkah menurut kemampuannya dan orang yang disempitkan rezekinya maka hendaklah dia memberi nafkah dari apa yang diberikan Allah kepadanya (sekadar yang mampu); Allah tidak memberati seseorang melainkan (sekadar kemampuan) yang diberikan Allah kepadanya. (Orang yang dalam kesempitan hendaklah ingat bahawa) Allah akan memberikan kesenangan sesudah berlakunya kesusahan.”

Ayat itu menjelaskan suami wajib menyediakan makanan, pakaian dan tempat tinggal untuk isteri secukupnya, berdasarkan kemampuan tanpa lokek atau berlebih-lebihan. Jika suami tidak menjalankan tanggungjawabnya atau nafkah yang diberi tidak mencukupi sedangkan dia mampu maka isteri boleh mengambil daripada harta suami dengan cara yang makruf walaupun dia tidak mengetahuinya.

Al-Bukhari dan Muslim meriwayatkan daripada Aisyah, bahawa Hindun binti Utbah, isteri Abu Sufyan mengadu kepada Rasulullah SAW: “Ya Rasulullah, sesungguhnya Abu Sufyan seorang yang kedekut. Dia tidak memberi nafkah kepadaku dan anakku kecuali apa yang aku ambil dari hartanya tanpa pengetahuannya. Baginda menjawab: Ambillah apa yang mencukupi untukmu dan anakmu dengan cara yang makruf.”

Pemberian nafkah boleh dilakukan dengan cara suami menyediakan segala yang diperlukan isteri dan anaknya atau suami memberikan wang kepada isteri untuk membeli keperluannya. Jika suami sudah sediakan nafkah wajib ke atasnya, wang tidak perlu diberikan lagi.


Kepada yang belum bernikah, bawa-bawalah bincang soal nafkah awal-awal. Siapa sapa nak bayar kereta, rumah, bil-bil, barang dapur dll, supaya tidak timbul masalah setelah kahwin. Sekarang, clause taklik (masa nikah tu) boleh ditambah ikut keperluan pasangan itu sendiri utk kebaikan bersama....

Sunday, November 25, 2007

Happy 3rd Birthday - Irdina Suraya

25 November @ 1435hrs
Irdina Suraya, 3rd birthday

Panjang umurnya panjang umurnya
panjang umurnya serta mulia...
Serta mulia... serta mulia...

Tapi mama lebih suka lagu....

Allah selamatkan kamu
Allah selamatkan kamu
Allah selamatkan Irdina Suraya
Allah selamatkan kamu
(ikut lagu Tn Ismit Ulam Raja)

Semoga panjang umur dah dilebihkan rezeki, Amin...

Malam birthday eve Dina, opah dan atuk dah telefon, nyanyikan lagi "Selamat Hari Jadi"... Dina tentu tak ingat nanti, tak apa, mama tuliskan di blog ni supaya bila Dina dah besar nanti, Dina boleh baca dan cuba ingat kembali.

Previous birthdays, kita cuma celebrate dgn ayah, nyunyut dan bibik, tapi tahun ni Pak Su, Mak Su, Nasuha & Aisy datang sambut harijadi Dina. Mak Su bawa kek coklat, ada hias spiderman.. hee.. hee... Dan Mak Su bawakan topi cone birthday...

Mama tengok Dina happy sangat, makan kek banyak-banyak, pulun minum milo kotak, ... dua tiga round jugaklah Dina masuk toilet... wek... wek...

Pak Long, Mak Long, Mak Uchu, abg Is, abg Muaz, abg Umar & abg Danish pun datang sambut harijadi Dina malam tu. Waa... 3rd birthday ni Dina potong kek 2 kali. Sukanya Dina makan kek yg kita beli di King's (Tesco Shah Alam).

Nanti mama tampal gambar birthday di MyMultiply!!!

Mama sayang Dina... walaupun mama selalu marah-marah, tapi sebenarnya mama sayang kat kakak, tau!


Tuesday, November 6, 2007

Kuota Anak

Semalam sempat menonton Ape Ape Aje di TV3. Kisahnya Sheila dan Samsul bincang tentang fenomena ibu atau bapa yang menetapkan berapa bilangan anak.


1. Kenapa ayah yang wajar tentukan bilangan anak? Selalunya sbb kewangan adalah bahagian major yang perlu difikirkan oleh seorang ketua keluarga.

2. Kenapa pulak ibu yang wajar tentukan bilangan anak? Sebab paling major adalah orang yang nak beranak adalah golongan ibu2. Lepas tu nak maintain body lagi. Ada yang kata lepas pada umur tertentu dah nak rehat, tak nak beranak.

Alasan untuk menyekat bilangan anak:-
1. Nak bagi pendidikan terbaik buat anak-anak.
2. Tak ada masa sebab sama-sama bekerja.
3. Jaga kesihatan.

Pernah dulu masa tengah 'atsui2', ada gak bincang fasal kuota... Hubby nak 3 aje, tak kira boy or girl. Kuotanya 3. Since myself ni 3 beradik, terasa lak yg angka 3 tu tak cukup. 4 mungkin angka yg perfect...

Terfikir pulak tiap kali raya, selalu sayalah yg kena cek kalau abang dan adik balik kg. Abang kerja di Bintulu, so bukan selalu dapat balik kg. Adik pulak kerjanya terbang sana sini. Kut kena terbang gak masa raya nanti, takde sape lak nak beraya dengan mak dan ayah... Mcm raya tahun ni, kalau kami sekeluarga tak balik, memang takde sesape la kat kg...

Apa-apa pun, anak sikit ke ramai ke.... terpulang pd kemampuan masing2.

Sunday, November 4, 2007

Tragedi November

Dear Iman,
I know I've been so selfish and self-centered. I'm sorry... I just wish you could understand, but you don't. You're too young to understand. Please forgive me.

Monday, October 29, 2007

Nimono - simmered dish

This is one of my favourite... healthy meal, no oil needed. I love the one with bamboo shoots, lotus root, carrots, shiitake... yumm yumm..



  • 1/4 pound thinly sliced beef sirloin
  • 4 potatoes
  • 1 onion
  • 4 tbsps soy sauce
  • 4 tbsps sake (Japanese fermented, mildly alcoholic beverage made from rice. For muslims, ignore this / take out)
  • 4 tbsps mirin (sweet Japanese rice wine used especially in cooking. For muslims, ignore this / take out)
  • 1 tbsp sugar
  • 8 snow peas
  • 2 cups dashi soup


Cut beef slices and vegetables into bite-sized pieces. Boil snow peas lightly and set aside. Put oil in a pan and saute beef quickly. Add potatoes in the pan and saute them together. Add dashi soup stock, soy sauce, sake, mirin, and sugar in the pan and simmer for 10 min. on medium heat. Add onion in the pan and simmer on low heat until the liquid are almost gone. Sprinkle snow peas over the simmered beef and potatoes.
Makes 4 servings

Wujudkah hantu?

BHarian onLine - Satu artikel yg menarik utk dikongsi, tapi sayang ... artikelnya pendek sgt.

Macam-Macam: Saintis gagal bongkar misteri buaian berhantu

BUENOS AIRES: Sekumpulan saintis Argentina diselubungi kebingungan apabila gagal merungkai misteri buaian 'berhantu' di sebuah taman permainan yang bergerak secara sendiri.

Akhbar The Sun melaporkan kelmarin, penduduk di bandar Firmat, Argentina, mendakwa salah satu buaian itu bergerak tanpa henti selama 10 hari berturut-turut sebelum tiba-tiba berhenti.

Ketika pakar terus berteka-teki punca misteri berkenaan, kalangan ibu bapa dan kanak-kanak sebaliknya mengaitkan kejadian aneh itu dengan hantu.

"Bagi kami, buaian itu berhantu," kata seorang guru, Maria de Silva.

Ahli akademik menolak pembabitan medan elektrik dan magnetik sebagai puncanya menyebabkan pihak berkuasa kini terpaksa memanggil pemburu hantu. - Agensi


Saya masih ingat masa dok di USJ3 dulu, depan USJ 3 nya main road ada satu playground (depan sekolah USJ4). Shereen (my hsemate's friend) yg dah lama dok USJ3 bagitau, kalau nak tgk hantu, pi la dok main buai kat situ. Sure jumpe sorg budak perempuan main buai, pukul 3-4 pagi. Kalau 'nasib baik', nampaklah buai tu hayun sendiri...

Lepas dgr cerita mcm tu, saya yg bukanlah seorg yg penakut tiba2 naik seram kalau lalu situ. Saya tak percaya pd hantu, tapi tak nafikan adanya makhluk halus (selain syaitan) ciptaan Allah yg tinggal berdekatan dgn kita. Rumah USJ3 (dirahsiakan lokasi sebenar)... yg saya sewa tu pun sebenarnya ada 'penunggu'. Abah Noor (pakcik saya) pernah berseloroh dgn saya, masa dtg melawat kami adik-beradik, katanya, "kamu pasang air-cond di dapur ke? Kat toilet atas tu pun kamu pasang air-cond, ya?", sambil menunjukkan bulu roma dilengannya yg meremang ... Tu bahasa kiasan yg dia guna utk benda2 yg tak dpt kami lihat thru mata kasar. Cepat2 saya jawap, "ha'a, mmg air-cond dah terpasang sebelum kami masuk." Since takde gangguan pd saya, adik & hsemate, kami tak pulak suruh Abah Noor 'buang' penunggu di situ.

Pernah 'adik' Nonin (kucing warna kuning peliharaan saya) merenung tepat tak berkelip2 di tangga (to 2nd floor). Masa tu saya tgh dok leka tgk tv. Nonin dok antara saya dan tv, so gelagatnya yg pelik tu mmg menarik perhatian saya. Saya pusing belakang, cuba mengintai di tangga, tapi tak nampak apa2. Saya pandang Nonin, saya tanya dia "adik nampak apa?" Of course la dia takleh nak jawap (kalau takat 'meow' tu boleh la). Agak2 dlm 5 minit dia stare tak berkelip2. Ish.. masa tu dah terasa ada yg tak kena, dah saya malas nak pandang belakang lagi. Tiba2 mata Nonin bergerak menuruni tangga, terus menuju ke pintu depan. Saya terus toleh ke belakang, tapi tak nampak apa2 pun. Utk menyedapkan hati, saya cakap dgn Nonin, "adik, dia dah keluar, ya?" Nonin pandang muka saya, terus duduk atas riba. Confirm! 'Benda' tu keluar sekejap, ambil angin agaknya....

Friday, October 26, 2007


Tiba-tiba teringin sgt nak makan okonomiyaki @ Japanese pancake.

japanese pizza

Japanese pizza is basically pan fried flour mixture with lots and lots of shredded cabbage (the more the tastier!) topped with seafood like squid, shrimp, tako (octopus), and virtually everything you want, as long as you like it. In fact, “okonomi” means “whatever you like”, so you can’t go wrong with the ingredients.

Dah jumpe resepi, nnti boleh la cuba. Haaa... Missed by old days in Oita!!!

Jie kata boleh letak yama imo, nak bagi lebih lembut & sedap. Mane nak cari yama imo kat M'sia nih?!


1 cup flour
3/4 cup dashi, water or grated yam
1 egg
1/8-1/4 of a cabbage

Toppings - any of the below:
Squid, Octopus, other seafood

Garnishing - any of the below:
Katsuo-bushi (dried bonito flakes)
Sakura-ebi (dried shrimps)
Beni-shoga (red ginger)
Ao-nori (green seaweed)

Okonomiyaki sauce & Mayonnaise

Method: (cut and paste from other entry)

Mix the flour, eggs and dashi or water or grated yam until the mixture is smooth and lump free. Add in the cabbage and mix thoroughly.
cabbage n mixture

Heat oil in pan. When the oil is hot enough, spread the mixture into the pan, forming a nice round shape. Let the underside brown before adding the toppings on top and turnover, brown both sides nicely.

Dish them up and spread mayonnaise, okonomiyaki sauce and all the toppings you want.

japanese pizza

Remember to eat it while its hot!


Nak beli brg2 utk okonomiyaki ni Masaya (my Jap colleague) suggest pegi Jusco MidValley. Kat sana lagi byk brg2 compared to Jusco 1Utama. Hem... bila pulak nak ke MidValley nih...

Thursday, October 18, 2007


This is a very good article. For those who are still single may learn something from here.... And for those who are already married may take it as a guideline to improve your marriage....


During one of our seminars, a woman asked a common question. She said, "How do I know if I married the right person?"

I noticed that there was a large man sitting next to her so I said, "It depends. Is that your husband?"

In all seriousness, she answered "How do you know?"

Let me answer this question because the chances are good that it's weighing on your mind. Here's the answer.

EVERY relationship has a cycle.
In the beginning, you fell in love with your spouse.
You anticipated their call, wanted their touch,
and liked their idiosyncrasies.
Falling in love with your spouse wasn't hard.
In fact, it was a completely natural and spontaneous experience.
You didn't have to DO anything.
That's why it's called "falling" in love...
Because it's happening TO YOU.
People in love sometimes say, "I was swept of my feet."
Think about the imagery of that __expression.
It implies that you were just standing there;
doing nothing,
and then something came along and happened TO YOU.
Falling is love is easy.
It's a passive and spontaneous experience.
But after a few years of marriage, the euphoria of love fades.
It's the natural cycle of EVERY relationship.
Slowly but surely,
phone calls become a bother (if they come at all),
touch is not always welcome (when it happens),
and your spouse's idiosyncrasies,
instead of being cute, drive you nuts.
The symptoms of this stage vary with every relationship,
but if you think about your marriage,
you will notice a dramatic difference between the initial stage
when you were in love and a much duller or even angry subsequent stage.
At this point, you and/or your spouse might start asking,
"Did I marry the right person?"
And as you and your spouse reflect on the euphoria of the love you once had,
you may begin to desire that experience with someone else.
This is when marriages breakdown.
People blame their spouse for their unhappiness
and look outside their marriage for fulfillment.
Extramarital fulfillment comes in all shapes and sizes.
Infidelity is the most obvious.
But sometimes people turn to work, a hobby, a friendship,
excessive TV, or abusive substances.
But the answer to this dilemma does NOT lie outside your marriage.
It lies within it.
I'm not saying that you couldn't fall in love with someone else.
You could.
And TEMPORARILY you'd feel better.
But you'd be in the same situation a few years later.
Because (listen carefully to this):
SUSTAINING love is not a passive or spontaneous experience.
It'll NEVER just happen to you.
You can't "find" LASTING love.
You have to "make" it day in and day out.
That's why we have the __expression "the labor of love."
Because it takes time, effort, and energy.
And most importantly, it takes WISDOM .
You have to know WHAT TO DO to make your marriage work.
Make no mistake about it.
Love is NOT a mystery.
There are specific things you can do (with or without your spouse)
to succeed with your marriage.
Just as there are physical laws of the universe (such as gravity),
there are also laws for relationships.
Just as the right diet and exercise program makes you physically stronger,
certain habits in your relationship WILL make your marriage stronger.
It's a direct cause and effect.
If you know and apply the laws,
the results are predictable.... you can "make" love.
Love in marriage is indeed a "decision"...
Not just a feeling.

Monday, October 1, 2007

Blog saya!!!

Alhamdulillah, keinginan utk memiliki laman blog sendiri tercapai akhirnya. Insya Allah, blog ini akan dimanafaatkan sebaik-baiknya utk tatapan anak-anak dan sesiapa yg berkenaan.

Tu ari ada nampak pelawat 'view' blog saya ni... Minta maaflah ya... Blog still under construction dan saya masih merangkak2 merangka & menghias blog ...

Harap2, lepas ni boleh terus menulis, insya Allah.